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Recoveries are recorded within 12—24 h after aggressive supportive care measures including mechanical ventilation during periods of respiratory depression; however death was reported in several dogs. The i.

Amanita Pantherina of Western Washington

LD 50 of muscimol is 2. In humans, the toxic threshold is estimated to be 6 mg of muscimol and 30—60 mg of ibotenic acid Halpern, Thus, an average size fruit body of A. In dogs, toxicity data is not available. Decontamination measures should be considered in recent exposures, though emetics are only recommended in animals that are not at risk for developing aspiration pneumonia. Other drugs to control seizures include phenobarbital and pentobarbital.

Careful monitoring of the animal's oxygenation status is vital until the animal is fully awake and alert. Badheka, in Comprehensive Toxicology , Ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms has become a popular form of substance abuse. Ten classes of mushrooms have been described in toxicology literature on the basis of the primary toxin.

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The most common types of psychoactive mushroom ingested for recreational purposes include:. Ibotenic acid- and muscimol isoxazoles -containing mushrooms Amanita muscaria fly agaric , Amanita gemmata , and Amanita pantherina Figure 7. Psilocybin-containing mushrooms Psilocybe cubensis , Psilocybe semilanceata , Psilocybe caerulipes , Gymnopilus spectabilis , Panaeolus foenisecii , and Psathyrella foenisecci Figure 8.

Figure 8. Mushrooms are usually chewed raw or dry, but may be consumed in the form of tea. Smoking or cooking the mushrooms destroys the main psychoactive ingredient psilocybin. Little data on the frequency of use of hallucinogenic mushrooms exist in the literature, although psilocybin-containing mushrooms are popular recreational substances of abuse among college students in the United States Rimsza and Moses Mortality from hallucinogenic mushrooms is extremely rare.

Ingestion of these agents is predominantly related with neurologic effects. Agitation, fever, tachycardia, and hypotension may occur. Analytic methods for detection of muscimol and psilocybin in serum and urine are available. Although rarely used or necessary in the clinical setting, these methods may have forensic applications Sticht and Kaferstein Poisons were of vegetable, animal, or mineral origin Horstmanshoff, ; Cilliers and Retief, Vegetable poisons were best known and most frequently used.

They included plants with belladonna alkaloids such as henbane, thorn apple, deadly nightshade, mandrake, aconite, hemlock, hellebore, yew extract, and opium. It has been suggested that cyanide was in Roman times extracted from the kernels of certain fruits like almonds, but strychnine was unknown to the ancients. The use of figs and mushrooms to dispose of a person was almost certainly based on applying poisons to these foods.

If inherently toxic mushrooms had been used, the rapid death of the victim would implicate the Amanita muscaria or Amanita pantherina kind.


Mandragora mandrake is the common name for this plant genus , with its human-like root, was steeped in superstition: there was a widely shared belief that gathering the root was dangerous, as the plant, when uprooted, uttered a shriek, which caused the death or insanity of those who heard it. However, it was one of the first drugs used effectively as anesthetic and analgesic, rather than as a fatal poison Cilliers, , pp. Figure Colored miniature of the human-like roots of mandragora in the 14th-century manuscript Medical Housebook of the Centuri family.

Austrian National Library, Vienna. Hemlock was well known in antiquity, and used as early as the 5th century BCE by the law courts of Athens as a legal mode of execution. Socrates died this way in BCE. It causes a gradually ascending paralysis and in the end asphyxia when the respiratory organs become paralyzed, and is said to result in an easy and painless death Cilliers, , pp. It was probably used extensively.

It causes rapid onset of symptoms of death due to cardiovascular collapse and respiratory paralysis.

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Mineral poisons, for example, salts of lead, mercury, copper, arsenic, and antimony, were known but virtually never used. Fumes from the lead smelting process and from silver and gold mines were recognized as toxic. Poisonous animals were studied by Nicander in his two books on antidotes. The ancients differentiated between three kinds of poisons, namely acute poisons killing rapidly, chronic poisons causing physical deterioration, and chronic poisons causing mental deterioration.

Professional poisoners like Locusta, Martina, and Canidia, the infamous trio of women poisoners in Roman times, were often requested by their clients to prepare poisons to suit their specific needs Cilliers and Retief, , p. Poisons were usually administered with food or drink—and for this reason official tasters, praegustatores slaves or freedmen , were employed by the nobility and the wealthy.

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They became so common that they formed a collegium with a procurator praegustatorum. Poisons were also administered by way of enemas, poisoned needles, or a poisoned feather to induce vomiting, as in the case of the emperor Claudius. Amanita muscaria is a member of the Basidiomycete group of fungi [6] and is the classic toadstool depicted in literature and art with a red or orange cap that is often mottled with white spots.

Cap of Amanita muscaria showing the distinctive mottled spots characteristic of this species. Within this genus there are a number of poisonous relatives including the panther Amanita pantherina , the death cap Amanita phalloides and the delightfully termed destroying angel Amanita verna [6]. Fly agaric has a long history of use as a sedative material and the main psychoactive compounds within these species are thought to be analogues of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA and glutamic acid, notably muscimol and ibotenic acid, respectively [7] Fig.

Amanita pantherina

The natural products muscimol and ibotenic acid are isoxazole alkaloids and possess some structural similarity with GABA and both act at various parts of the GABA receptor. Muscimol is derived from ibotenic acid by decarboxylation [8]. Muscarine is a cholinergic agonist and was thought to contribute to the overall psychoactivity of A. However, it was reported later that the mushroom contained only trace amount of muscarine so it is unlikely to be responsible for the psychoactive effect [9]. Skip to content. Contact us Sign up My profile Login Logout.

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Pantherkrabbe - Parathelphusa pantherina

No images available for this taxon If you have images for this taxon that you would like to share with Atlas of Living Australia, please upload using the upload tools. Stalk: " Veils: universal veil white; leaving patches on cap, and bandlike margin at tip of stalk bulb, typically rolled into stalk, but occasionally free; sometimes with concentric bands on lower stalk.

Partial veil membranous, whitish; leaving persistent, pendant ring on upper or mid-stalk. Partial veil membranous, pinkish-buff; leaving pendant, often evanescent or collapsing ring on upper stalk. Spores: X 6. Spore print white. Look-alikes: A. The poisonous A.